Summary of Conclusions
From the Book by J. W. Hanson, first published in
The Prevailing Doctrine of the Christian Church During Its First Five
- During the First Century the primitive Christians
did not dwell on matters of eschatology, but devoted their attention to
apologetics; they were chiefly anxious to establish the fact of Christ's
advent, and of its blessings to the world. Possibly the question of destiny
was an open one, till Paganism and Judaism introduced erroneous ideas,
when the New Testament doctrine of the apokatastasis was asserted,
and universal restoration became an accepted belief, as stated later by
Clement and Origen, A.D. 180-230.
- The Catacombs give us the views of the unlearned,
as Clement and Origen state the doctrine of scholars and teachers. Not
a syllable is found hinting at the horrors of Augustinianism, but the inscription
on every monument harmonizes with the Universalism of the early fathers.
- Clement declares that all punishment, however
severe, is purificatory; that even the "torments of the damned"
are curative. Origen explains even Gehenna as signifying limited
and curative punishment, and both, as all the other ancient Universalists,
declare that "everlasting" (aionion) punishment, is consonant
with universal salvation.
So that it is no proof that other primitive Christians who are less
explicit as to the final result, taught endless punishment when they employ
the same terms.
- Like our Lord and his Apostles, the primitive
Christians avoided the words with which the Pagans and Jews defined endless
punishment aidios or adialeipton timoria (endless torment),
a doctrine the latter believed, and knew how to describe; but they, the
early Christians, called punishment, as did our Lord, kolasis aionios,
discipline, chastisement, of indefinite, limited duration.
- The early Christians taught that Christ preached
the Gospel to the dead, and for that purpose descended into Hades. Many
held that he released all who were in ward. This shows that repentance
beyond the grave, perpetual probation, was then accepted, which precludes
the modern error that the soul's destiny is decided at death.
- Prayers for the dead were universal in the early
church, which would be absurd, if their condition is unalterably fixed
at the grave.
- The idea that false threats were necessary to
keep the common people in check, and that the truth might be held esoterically,
prevailed among the earlier Christians, so that there can be no doubt that
many who seem to teach endless punishment, really held the broader views,
as we know the most did, and preached terrors pedagogically.
- The first comparatively complete systematic statement
of Christian doctrine ever given to the world was by Clement of Alexandria,
A.D. 180, and universal salvation was one of the tenets.
- The first complete presentation of Christianity
as a system was by Origen (A.D. 220) and universal salvation was explicitly
contained in it.
- Universal salvation was the prevailing doctrine
in Christendom as long as Greek, the language of the New Testament, was
the language of Christendom.
- Universalism was generally believed in the best
centuries, the first three, when Christians were most remarkable for simplicity,
goodness and missionary zeal.
- Universalism was least known when Greek, the
language of the New Testament was least known, and when Latin was the language
of the Church in its darkest, most ignorant, and corrupt ages.
- Not a writer among those who describe the heresies
of the first three hundred years intimates that Universalism was then a
heresy, though it was believed by many, if not be a majority, and certainly
by the greatest of the fathers.
- Not a single creed for five hundred years expresses
any idea contrary to universal restoration, or in favor of endless punishment.
- With the exception of the arguments of Augustine
(A.D. 420), there is not an argument known to have been framed against
Universalism for at least four hundred years after Christ, by any of the
- While the councils that assembled in various
parts of Christendom, anathematized every kind of doctrine supposed to
be heretical, no ecumenical council, for more than five hundred
years, condemned Universalism, though it had been advocated
in every century by the principal scholars and most revered saints.
- As late as A.D. 400, Jerome says "most people"
(plerique). and Augustine "very many" (quam plurimi),
believed in Universalism, notwithstanding that the tremendous influence
of Augustine, and the mighty power of the semi-pagan secular arm were arrayed
- The principal ancient Universalists were Christian
born and reared, and were among the most scholarly and saintly of all the
- The most celebrated of the earlier advocates
of endless punishment were heathen born, and led corrupt lives in their
youth. Tertullian one of the first, and Augustine, the greatest of them,
confess to having been among the vilest.
- The first advocates of endless punishment, Minucius
Felix, Tertullian and Augustine, were Latins, ignorant of Greek, and less
competent to interpret the meaning of Greek Scriptures than were the Greek
- The first advocates of Universalism, after the
Apostles, were Greeks, in whose mother-tongue the New Testament was written.
They found their Universalism in the Greek Bible. Who should be correct,
they or the Latins?
- The Greek Fathers announced the great truth of
universal restoration in an age of darkness, sin and corruption. There
was nothing to suggest it to them in the world's literature or religion.
It was wholly contrary to everything around them. Where else could they
have found it, but where they say they did, in the Gospel?
- All ecclesiastical historians and the best Biblical
critics and scholars agree to the prevalence of Universalism in the earlier
- From the days of Clement of Alexandria to those
of Gregory of Nyssa and Theodore of Mopsuestia (A.D. 180-428), the great
theologians and teachers, almost without exception, were Universalists.
No equal number in the same centuries were comparable to them for learning
- The first theological school in Christendom,
that in Alexandria, taught Universalism for more than two hundred years.
- In all Christendom, from A.D. 170 to 430, there
were six Christian schools. Of these four, the only strictly theological
schools, taught Universalism, and but one endless punishment.
- The three earliest Gnostic sects, the Basilidians,
the Carpocratians and the Valentinians (A.D. 117-132) are condemned by
Christian writers, and their heresies pointed out, but though they taught
Universalism, that doctrine is never condemned by those who oppose them.
Irenaeus condemned the errors of the Carpocratians, but does not reprehend
their Universalism, though he ascribes the doctrine to them.
- The first defense of Christianity against Infidelity
(Origen against Celsus) puts the defense on Universalistic grounds. Celsus
charged the Christians' God with cruelty, because he punished with fire.
Origen replied that God's fire is curative; that he is a "Consuming
Fire," because he consumes sin and not the sinner.
- Origen, the chief representative of Universalism
in the ancient centuries, was bitterly opposed and condemned for various
heresies by ignorant and cruel fanatics. He was accused of opposing Episcopacy,
believing in pre-existence, etc., but never was condemned for his Universalism.
The very council that anathematized "Origenism" eulogized Gregory
of Nyssa, who was explicitly a Universalist as was Origen. Lists of his
errors are given by Methodius, Pamphilus and Eusebius, Marcellus, Eustathius
and Jerome, but Universalism is not named by one of his opponents. Fancy
a list of Ballou's errors and his Universalism omitted; Hippolytus (A.D.
320) names thirty-two known heresies, but Universalism is not mentioned
as among them. Epiphanius, "the hammer of heretics," describes
eighty heresies, but he does not mention universal salvation, though Gregory
of Nyssa, an outspoken Universalist, was, at the time he wrote, the most
conspicuous figure in Christendom.
- Justinian, a half-pagan emperor, who attempted
to have Universalism officially condemned, lived in the most corrupt epoch
of the Christian centuries. He closed the theological schools, and demanded
the condemnation of Universalism by law; but the doctrine was so prevalent
in the church that the council refused to obey his edict to suppress it.
Lecky says the age of Justinian was "the worst form civilization has
- The first clear and definite statement of human
destiny by any Christian writer after the days of the Apostles, includes
universal restoration, and that doctrine was advocated by most of the greatest
and best of the Christian Fathers for the first five hundred years of
the Christian Era.
In one word, a careful study of the early history
of the Christian religion, will show that the doctrine of universal restoration
was least prevalent in the darkest, and prevailed most in the most enlightened,
of the earliest centuries--that it was the prevailing doctrine in the Primitive